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The first tourist destinations were primarily consolidated in the early twentieth century. Since then, tourism has undergone significant changes in its economic and social components. Over time, many of these destinations have now come to represent 'mass tourism' and are the subject of many studies on the impacts of tourism and competitiveness policies. The conclusions of these studies point to the need for new perspectives and strategies ranging from adaptation to new contexts to a radical change in targets. Concepts such as 'sustainability', 'nature', 'biodiversity' or 'climate change' have now been added to the tourism industry with varying degrees of knowledge and skill. These offer a great opportunity to improve a model of tourism previously oriented towards business and the institutional rhetoric of "sustainability" - a fact now recognised by tourists as representing the negative effects of conventional tourism. Management of these innovations should include among its aims environmental education and orient visitors towards awareness and respect for sustainability even outside their leisure time. To this end, the tourist needs to be made aware of all those involved and their commitment to managing the destination, as enjoying the territory should be based upon minimising the socio-ecological impacts of tourism, and on motivating nature conservation and participation of local populations in both these goals, as well as in the economic benefits obtained. The challenge entails the destination finding a good balance between economic and cultural benefits, landscape conservation and tourist satisfaction. This fifth volume of the Tourism Today Series presents a collection of papers addressing the how to manage these types of uses at a variety of destinations and in multiple contextual realities. These edited papers were selected from those presented at different international conferences organised by the Wessex Institute of Technology. They address important issues related to tourism as a tool for development which will give a better understanding of some of the current challenges.
In China's Social Insurance in the Twentieth Century, Aiqun Hu develops a framework of "interactive diffusion of global models" in examining the history of China's social insurance since the 1910s. The book covers both Nationalist- and Communist-controlled areas (1927-1949) and Taiwan (1949-present), surpassing the party divide. It argues that China's progression in social insurance resulted from diffusion of two global models (German capitalist and Soviet socialist social insurance) until the early 1990s. Thereafter, China's social insurance reforms were increasingly directed by the World Bank's neoliberal models, which also influenced Taiwan's pension reforms. During the entire process, however, global forces provided the basic intellectual framework, while national forces determined the timing and specifics of adopting the models.
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